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(The Philosophical Part)
THE FIELD AND THE KNOWER OF THE FIELD
Understand that what is not Knowledge automatically becomes ignorance. I shall tell you some of its main signs. An ignorant person lives for status. He eagerly awaits honour and is pleased by felicitations. He who is stiff with pride and does not bend should be considered as the abode of ignorance. He brags about his religious actions and makes a big noise about his learning. He makes public announcements of his good deeds and all his actions are for getting prominence and greatness. He deceives his followers by external appearances by applying ash, sandal-paste etc. to the body. Understand that such a person is a mine of ignorance. (13:656-661).
Cruelty : He whose actions make the whole world suffer, whose casual words even prick like a spear and whose all plans are more dangerous than poison may be considered as possessing a lot of ignorance. His life is the home of violence. (13:662-664).
Slaves to emotions: He becomes elated by meeting his loved ones and depressed when they depart. He feels pleased by hearing his own praise and if he hears even slight criticism he becomes unhappy. He who cannot bear the onslaughts of mental emotions may be considered as completely ignorant. (13:665-668).
Secretive: His talk appears to be frank outwardly but actually he is very secretive. He shows friendship towards one but helps another. He somehow or other maintains good relations with straightforward type of persons and wins the minds of good people with an ultimate aim of harming them. It is a fact such a person has ignorance. (13:669-672).
Disrespect for Guru: He is ashamed of his Guru tradition and he does not like to serve his Guru. He learns from his Guru but is disrespectful to him. To even utter the name of such person is like using the tongue to eat food from a Shudra (prohibited food) but I had to do it while telling you the characteristics of ignorance. Such a sin can be atoned by uttering the name of a Guru's devotee. (13:673-676).
Doubts and Greed: An ignorant person who neglects his duties, has his mind full of doubts, is impure from inside and outside. Due to greed of wealth he does not care about whether it belongs to him or others. He is very loose regarding women. He does not feel shame if he misses the usual time for performing his prescribed actions or his incidental duties. He has no shame in doing sinful deeds and no liking for righteous deeds. His mind is always full of doubts and he always has his eyes on money. Understand that such a person is like a statue of ignorance. (13:678-684).
Fickle-minded: He deviates from his resolves for the sake of personal gains. He gets shaken by frightful situations. He gets engrossed in flights of imagination. His mind gets totally lost by unpleasant news. He cannot remain steady in one place unless he falls down otherwise he goes on wandering. Such a person is full of ignorance. He is fickle-minded like a monkey and he does not have the strength of determination in him. He is not afraid of doing prohibited actions. He abandons penances halfway kicks away righteousness and does not bother about the rules of the rituals. He does not shun sinful actions and does not have liking for righteous actions. He tramples on the bounds of shame. He does not bother about family traditions and about what is proper or improper. His mind is wanders unrestrained in thoughts of sense- pleasures. (13:685-699). Such a person is rich in ignorance. (13:702).
Passion-lover: He does not give up the desire for sense pleasures not only while he lives but after death also and makes preparations while he lives in order to attain heaven after death for the sake of pleasures there. He struggles incessantly for bodily pleasures. He prefers actions where he can fulfil his desire of enjoying the fruits thereof. He thinks it is inauspicious to meet a dispassionate person and takes bath to clean himself. The sense pleasures may get tired of him but he does not get tired of them. (13:703-705). For their sake he will even jump in fire and goes around exhibiting this nature like an ornament. (13:707).
Infatuation with family : From birth until his death he incessantly toils for the pleasures and not minding the troubles he loves them more and more. He is infatuated with parents during childhood. When that is over he gets attracted during his youth to female body and while he is busy enjoying the marital life old age approaches when he directs that same love towards his children. Like a congenital blind person he spends all his time with his children but he never gets tired of the sense-pleasures until his death. There is no limit to ignorance in such a person. Now listen to some more characteristics of ignorance. (13:709-713).
False pride and jealousy : He performs his duties sticking to the I- am-the-body impression and feels disturbed if there are any shortcomings in his performance. Proud of his youth and learning he goes around with stiff posture and says, " I alone am great and rich. Who else is there with a behaviour as good as mine?" He becomes stiff with the ego that there is none as great as himself, that he knows everything and that he is popular. (13:714-717).
He is jealous of virtuous persons, proud of his own learning and of the strength he has gained from penances and of his knowledge. You will see him swollen by pride. He does not bend nor feel kindness. Even virtuous persons cannot bring him to senses. I definitely tell you that ignorance of such a person is on the increase. (13:724-727).
Forgets birth-death cycles : Arjuna, he bothers about his household, body and wealth but not about his past and future births. (13:728). Even when the body is infected and the nine apertures of the body leak he does not regret the reasons due to which he has reached that state. He was simmering in filth for nine months in the cave of mother's womb he got but he neither remembers that discomfort nor the pains during the birth. He does not heel nauseated by seeing babies wallowing in faeces and urine and neither does he think about the fact that he has just finished his last lifetime and the next lifetime is approaching. Not only that he does not worry about death while the life progresses rapidly. He is so sure that he will continue to live that he refuses to accept the possible existence of death. (13:732-738).
While he is engrossed in sense-pleasures, he does not realise that death is approaching as he continues to remain alive. He considers only the growth of his body and the sense- pleasures as real but he does not realise that when a prostitute offers one everything that is where his destruction lies. (13:743-745). Engrossed in eating and sleeping he does not realise that his destruction lies in those very same things. As time passes the body grows so does the indulgence in sense-pleasures and the shadow of death falls on life more and more but he does not see it approaching. He who cannot see the approaching death by getting engrossed in sense-pleasures is the king of the land of ignorance. (13:747-753).
Intoxicated by life he remains without care about the approaching old age. During youth he does not understand what would be his condition when he would become old. (13:754). Such a person is really ignorant. When he sees a lame or a bent person he mocks him but he does not think that he too is going to reach the same condition. And even when he attains old age which is the sign of approaching death delusion about his own youth does not leave him. Understand that such a person is without doubt an abode of ignorance. (13:760-763).
He who remains carefree when the enemy sleeps thinking that enmity is now over perishes along with his family. In the same way he does not bother about falling ill in future as long as his appetite and sleep are good and he is not ill at present. And in the company of his wife and children and growing affluence which intoxicates him he does not see that he is going to be separated one day from his sons etc. and his wealth. He who cannot see this future sorrow is ignorant. (13:767-770).
Indulgence : And he who lets the sense-organs go astray without restraint is also ignorant. In the prime of his youth supported by wealth he indulges in all sorts of pleasures, whether proper or improper, does what should not be done, longs for the impossible, and thinks about things he should not think of. He enters where he should not, asks for what he should not take, touches things which he should not touch and does all the things one should not even think about. He goes to places where he should not go, sees what he should not see, eats what he should not eat and feels satisfied in it instead. He keeps company of those he should not, maintains relations with those he should not and behaves in a manner he should not behave. He listens to what he should not and blabbers about things about which he should not speak, but does not realise that he will be get the blame for it. He does things which please the body and the mind without thinking about their propriety. But the thought that it will result in his committing sin or he will have to suffer in hell does not enter his mind. Association with such a person leads to the spread of ignorance in the world to such an extent that even sages get affected. (13:771-780).
Attachment to wife at the cost of parents: Now listen to some more characteristics. His attachment is totally towards his home and his wife and he cannot get his mind away from them. (13:781-783). He loves his home like as parents love an only child born in old age and he does not know anything other than his wife whose body he worships without any thought about, "Who I am?" or "What I should do?". Just as the mind of a great sage gets totally engrossed in Brahman resulting in stoppage of the worldly actions, an ignorant person surrenders himself completely to his wife and does not care for his losses, public shame or slander. He keeps himself in her good books and dances to her tunes. Like a greedy person toils for money even by hurting his friends and relatives, he gives little to charity and does not do many righteous deeds. He cheats persons from his family and clan but gives his wife plenty fulfilling all her wants. He somehow manages to perform worship of his family deity and bluffs to his Guru. He tells his parents excuses that there is not enough money to give to them but brings various articles of pleasure and the best things he comes across for his wife. He serves his wife with unstinted dedication like a devotee lovingly devoted to his family deity. He gives the best and costly articles to his wife but for other persons in the family he does not give enough even for bare survival. If somebody gives improper looks to his wife or behaves with her improperly he feels as if the end of the world has come. He satisfies her every command. His wife is everything to him and he feels special love for children born of her. Whatever things she possesses and her wealth are more valuable to him than his own life. Such a person is the root of ignorance and it gains strength from him. He is ignorance personified. (13:788-804).
Slave to pleasure and sorrows : He reaches the height of happiness when he gets the thing he likes and he sinks due to sorrow when he gets what he does not like. One who worries because of favourable and unfavourable circumstances, however highly intelligent he may be is in reality an ignorant person. (13:805-806). He is devoted to me but that devotion is with a material objective in mind. He makes a show of my devotion but keeps his sights on pleasures. If he does not get them after being devoted to me, then he gives up the devotion saying that the talk of God etc. is all lies. Like an ignorant peasant he sets up different deities and after failing with one he goes to the next. He joins that Guru tradition where there is a great pomp and show, receives Guru-mantra from him and considers others as ordinary. He behaves cruelly with living creatures but showers special love on a stone idol. But his love is not steady in one single place. He makes my idol and installs it in one corner of the house and himself he goes on pilgrimage to places of other deities. He offers devotion towards his family deity and on auspicious occasions he worships other deities. After installing me in the house he makes vows to other deities. On the day of Shraddha he belongs to the forefathers. He worships cobras on Nagpanchami day as much as he worships me on Ekadashi day. On Chaturthi day he becomes a devotee of Ganapati and on Chaturdashi day he avers, " Oh Mother Durga, I am a devote of only you." He leaves the daily rituals and incidental actions during Navaratri and sits for the reading of Navachandi and on Sunday gives an offering of Khichadi to the deity Bahiroba. Then on Monday he rushes to Shivalinga for offering Bel leaves and thus he somehow manages the perform the worship ritual of all deities. That devotee performs the worship ritual of all deities without taking rest for a moment just like a prostitute who demonstrates her love for all the people in the town. Such a devotee who every now and then rushes to different deities is ignorance reincarnated. (13:810-823).
Dislikes quiet and holy places: And he also is ignorant who feels disgusted at the sight of quiet forests meant for penance, places of pilgrimage. He who feels happy living in the town, likes to sit in a crowd and likes to gossip is nothing but ignorant. (13:824- 825).
Prefers black arts to holy knowledge : Such a person, who has only book-knowledge, ridicules at the real knowledge which leads to Self-realisation. He does not look at Upanishads. He does not like the science of yoga and his mind does not turn towards spiritual science. Breaking the interest created by the intellect towards thoughts of the Soul, his mind wanders here and there like a wayward cattle. He is clever in the ritualistic technique, knows the Puranas by heart and he is such an expert astrologer that whatever he predicts happens. He is skilled in sculpture and architecture and an expert in culinary art. And he knows the mantras from Atharvaveda (Black magic, charm, voodoo etc.). There is nothing more left for him to learn in the science of love. He gives discourses on Mahabharata and other branches of knowledge stand attentively before him in person. He is skilled in medicine and there is none who is more well-versed than him. He discusses Smritis. He knows the secret of snake-charming and he has mastery on the vocabulary of Vedas. He is expert in grammar and learned in science of justice. But it is only regarding the knowledge of the self that he is congenital blind. He may be considered as an authority on the principles of every branch of science. But like a child born at an inauspicious time (unlucky for his father) that is all in vain. Ignore him. (13:826-835).
Except for the spiritual science, all other branches of knowledge are meaningless. Therefore Arjuna, remember that a person with only book-knowledge is a fool who has not realised the Self. His body has grown out of the seed of ignorance and his learning is a creeper of this ignorance. Whatever he speaks is the flower of ignorance and whatever righteous path he practices is the fruit of the ignorance too. Is there any need of telling that one who does not believe in Knowledge of the Self has not understood its meaning?. (13:839-843). How can a person who is not acquainted with Knowledge of the Self can find its subject matter that is the Soul? One need not make complicated arithmetic to tell that a person does not understand the principles of Knowledge. (13:846-847).
Turn your back to ignorance The characteristics of ignorance are contained in the eighteen characteristics of knowledge I had explained to you earlier. earlier. The characteristics of Knowledge when applied in reverse become the characteristics of ignorance. (13:849-851).
Arjuna, turn your back to the characteristics of ignorance which I have just told you and make a good and firm resolve regarding Knowledge. By means of that pure Knowledge you will realise its object namely the Brahman. (13:862-863).
OBJECT OF KNOWLEDGE
Now I shall tell you about the object of Knowledge. Brahman is called the object of Knowledge because it cannot be achieved by any means other than Knowledge and after it is attained there is nothing left for the sage to be done further because the Knowledge unifies him with itself. After its attainment the seeker gives up worldly matters and remains immersed in the bliss of the Brahman. That Object is such that it has no beginning and naturally it is called Supreme Brahman. If one goes to deny its existence then one can see it in the form of the universe; and if one goes to say that universe itself is the Supreme Brahman then it is illusion (Maya) because it does not have form, colour or shape. Also it is not visible and neither it can see. Then how can anyone say that it exists? And if its existence is denied then wherefrom have the principles like Mahat etc. have sprung? The speech becomes dumb because one cannot at all affirm or deny its existence and even the thought about it cannot proceed further. Just as earth is seen in the form of a pot similarly Brahman has taken the form of the universe and has pervaded it throughout. (13:865-873).
It fills all places all the time and is not different from place and time. The very actions performed by gross and subtle things are its hands. Therefore Brahman has been called Vishwa-Bah or hands of the universe because it inspires actions everywhere, all the time and in all ways. And it is present everywhere at the same time therefore it is called Vishwataspat i.e. having feet everywhere. Like the sun it observes all forms by its light therefore even if it does not have eyes, Vedas have cleverly called it Vishwachakshu or eyes of the universe. It is present always and everywhere on everyone's head therefore it is called Vishwamurdha or intellect of the universe. The form of fire is its mouth because it accepts all things through the fire therefore Vedas have called Brahman as Vishwatomukh or mouth of the universe. And its ears engulf all sounds just as space engulfs all objects and it is because of this that we call Brahman as "one which listens everywhere". It is because of its all- pervasiveness that this simile has been used otherwise how can one speak in terms of hands, feet, eyes etc. about something which is the essence of void or nothing?. How can there be the sense of pervader and pervaded in the Brahman which is everywhere? But this differentiation had to be made in order to explain what the Brahman is. Just as for indicating zero or nothing one writes a small dot similarly to explain monism one has to use dualism. If this is not done then all dialogue between Guru and disciple will stop. It is for this reason that it has been customary to explain non-dualism using the language of dualism. (13:874-890).
HOW BRAHMAN PERVADES OBJECTS
Now listen to how Brahman pervades objects which are visible to the eyes. (13:891). That Brahman appears to be in all objects (like for example the water or liquid principle which occurs in water). (13:895). Because of the shape of the pot the sky appears to be round or because a hut is rectangular, the sky also looks rectangular but the sky does not have any shape, round or rectangular. Similarly though objects have attributes the Brahman which pervades them does not have attributes. That Brahman appears to be like mind and other organs or like the three attributes but just as sweetness of jaggery does not lie in the shape of its block the mind and attributes are not real Brahman. (13:898-901). In plain words it is different from the mind and the attributes. The relations between name and form and the differences in duties for different castes are applicable to the form and not to the Brahman. Brahman is not the same as attributes, and it is not related to attributes but there is an illusion of their appearing in it. (13:904-907). Therefore the ignorant think that the attributes belong to the Brahman. The attributeless Brahman holds the attributes without any relation with them but that is only an illusion and not real. Therefore one should not mention attributes in relation to the Brahman. (13:910-912).
Same Brahman pervades all Though Brahman exists in all moving and non-moving objects it is the same entity. That which is indestructible and pervades the entire universe is the Object-to-be Known. That which is inside the body as well as outside, is near as well as far and is unique without duality, totally pervades everything. (13:913-915). Its pervasion is as a single entity without break in all four types of beings namely born through sex, eggs, sweat and seeds. It is also the cause of the creation of the universe. (13:917,920). Therefore just as the waves are supported by the sea, so is the universe supported by Brahman. At the time of creation we call it Brahmadeo, during sustenance we properly call it Vishnu and when the universe dissolves we call it Rudra. And when all the three attributes vanish we call it cipher (zero). And that which swallows the nothingness of space and destroys the three attributes is the great cipher as agreed by Upanishads. (13:921-926).
Brahman - the basic principle in all principles That Brahman is the igniting principle in the fire, nectar of life the moon provides to the plants and the power of sight by which the sun oversees the affairs of the world. The galaxies of stars brighten by its light and by its brightness the sun easily spreads in the universe. It is the root of the origin, growing of the growth, intelligence of the intellect and life-force of life. It is mental power of the mind, vision of the eyes, hearing of the ears, power of speech of the tongue, vitality of life-force, feet of the motion, activity of the action. Formation, growth and destruction occur by its power. The five principles earth, water, air, fire and space derive their characteristics from it. In short all objects appear in the universe because of it and actually everything is Brahman and no duality exists. Once it is experienced, the seer and the seen, The means and the end become one and the difference between Knowledge, the object of the knowledge and the Knower vanishes. One cannot speak of duality in the context of that which exists in the heart of all. (13:927-939)
Thus I have made clear to you what Field is. Also I explained to you what Knowledge is. Thus I discussed the characteristics of ignorance and now I have explained to you what Object-to-be-known is by analytical reasoning. (13:940-943).
Easiest method to attain me Arjuna, my devotees come to me longing for my attainment after thinking about all these things. By giving up the attachment to the body they concentrate their mind and feelings on me. These devotees, after they know me take me in exchange for their ego and thus become one with me. I have thus planned the easiest method for being one with me. (13:944-947).
PURUSH AND PRAKRITI (SANKHYA)
Arjuna, if I had merely told you that Soul is everywhere then you would not have believed it. Therefore considering that you are dull-witted I explained to you the same Brahman in four parts. Considering your ability to concentrate I divided the Brahman into four parts namely the Field, Knowledge, Object-to-be-known and Ignorance. If even after this you have not understood my explanation then I shall explain the same thing to you in another way. Instead of dividing into four parts I shall divide into only two parts namely Soul and Non-soul (Purush and Prakriti). Listen to it. (13:949-955).
I shall tell you about the two parts Prakriti and Purush. Yogis call this path "Sankhya". To explain it I have incarnated as Kapil. Listen to the pros and cons of it. (13:957- 959).
Purush is without beginning and so is Prakriti and they are both stuck to each other like day and night or like a shadow to a form. What I explained to you as Field must be understood here as Prakriti and the Knower of the Field is the same as Purush. Even if the names are different the principles to which they refer are the same. (13:960-964). Purush is the power and Prakriti is the one which causes all actions to take place. Intellect, organs and mind etc. which are responsible for feelings and passions and the three attributes Sattva, Raja and Tama, all arise from Prakriti and are the cause of creation of Karma. (13:966-968).
Creation of Ego. Desire and intellect first create ego in Prakriti and make the individual involved in some cause. The procedures used for achieving a desired object is called action. When desire becomes strong it activates the mind and makes it gets the tasks done through the organs and that is what is called the effect of the Prakriti. Therefore Prakriti is the root of the action, cause and effect. When the trio comes together the Prakriti becomes active but the nature of its actions is governed by the three attributes. The action in which the Sattva attribute predominates is a good righteous action. That which is takes place due to Raja attribute is a medium or mixed type of action and that which takes place due to Tama attribute is a prohibited and unrighteous action. The good and bad actions thus occur due to Prakriti and gives rise to pleasure and pain respectively. This pleasure and pain are experienced by the Purush. As long as this pleasure and pain appears real the Prakriti remains busy in creating them and the Purush in experiencing them. The affairs of this couple Prakriti and Purush are strange. Whatever the wife earns the husband enjoys without himself making any efforts. This couple does not come together and yet Prakriti the wife gives birth to this universe. (13:969-980).
Actionless Purush and Gunamayi Prakriti: He who is without form (body) and actionless (cripple), without attributes (wealth), unique and older than the oldest of the objects is called Purush. Nothing can be said about whether he is female or a neuter. He does not have eyes, ears, hands, feet, form, colour and name. He has no organs. Such is the husband of Prakriti who has to experience pain and pleasure. Though he is actionless, unattached and non-indulgent, the Prakriti makes him experience the pain and pleasure. This Prakriti uses her form and attributes to create a strange drama therefore the Prakriti is called Gunamayi or one having attributes. She ever takes a new form every moment and its vitality makes even the passive objects active. Because of her names are assigned, love is felt and sense-organs are able to sense. She makes mind even though it is neuter (cannot create anything?), to wander in the three worlds. Such is her capability. (13:981-990).
Play of Prakriti: This Prakriti which is like a big island of illusion and which extends everywhere, creates emotions. Passions are fostered with her support. Delusion blooms because of her. She is known as divine Maya. (13:991-992).
She makes the language grow, creates this material world, and ceaselessly invades it with materialistic way of life. All arts and skills are born of her. Desires, knowledge and actions are created from her. All the tunes and sounds are minted out by her. She is the home of miracles. In fact everything that happens in the world is her play. The creation of the world and its dissolution are her morning and evening respectively. She is thus the wonderful illusionist. (13:993-996).
She is the mate of the lonely Purush, companion of the unattached (Brahman) and she resides in the void. Her capability is so high that she keeps the uncontrollable Purush under control. Actually the Purush is not attached to anything but this Prakriti becomes everything for him. She becomes the creation of the self- born, form of the formless Purush and his very existence and base. (13:997-1000).
Illusion of attributes Thus, by her strength Prakriti creates passions in that dispassionate Purush and his effulgence wanes like that of the moon on the new moon day. (13:1005-1008). Once the Purush surrenders to the Prakriti its brightness vanishes and he has to experience the effect of the attributes. By association with her he has to suffer the impact of birth and death. When moonlight is reflected in moving water, people see many reflections and feel that there are many moons. Similarly by association with attributes it appears as if the birthless Purush takes birth but that is not true. Just as a Sanyasi sees in his dream that he is born in a Shudra caste similarly the Purush feels that he has taken birth in a low or high caste but that is not true and therefore the Purush does not have to experience the effects of Karmas. It only appears to him so because of the association with the attributes. (13:1014-1021).
Purush is beyond Prakriti Prakriti has the support of the Purush but there is a vast difference between the two. This Purush is on the bank of the river that is Prakriti and though his reflection is in the river it is not carried away by the current. Prakriti is created and is dissolved but Purush is eternal. Therefore he controls everything right from Brahmadeo downwards. Prakriti exists because of him and by his power alone she creates the world therefore he is the Lord of Prakriti. The world which has been going on since endless past dissolves in him at the end of the aeon. He is the Lord of the great Brahman that is the Prakriti. He controls the whole universe and envelops it entirely by his expanse. Really speaking he is the Supreme Soul which is said to exist in the body. (13:1022-1029).
One who understands that this Purush is one and the only one and all the actions and attributes belong to the Prakriti, that Purush and Prakriti are like the form and the shadow or like water and mirage, may be considered as having understood the difference between Purush and Prakriti. Even if he performs action by virtue of possessing a body, does not get tainted by them. He does not feel attachment to his body while he lives and when he dies is not reborn. In this unworldly way the understanding of the difference between Purush and Prakriti becomes favourable to him. There are many ways by which this understanding will arise in your heart. Listen. (13:1030-1036).
PURIFICATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL
Some people purify gold that is the Soul (which is tainted by attributes) in the fire of thought by coating it with layers of listening, pondering and longing for it, and burning away the impurity of the worldly attributes. By burning the thirty-six impure principles they separate away the pure Soul and see it by the eyes of meditation within themselves. Some meditate on it using the principles of Sankhya philosophy or by the philosophy of action and attain liberation. (13:1037-1040).
Thus people adopt different ways to get safely out of this whirlpool of life and death. But there are others who by ridding themselves of pride keep faith in Guru's words. They listen attentively and respectfully to whatever the Guru says and offer themselves and all their possessions to the him. Guru cares about what is good and bad for them, feels for their miseries and mitigates them, makes them feel relaxed and happy by inquiring after them. They keep aside all their work in order to be able to hear his words and are prepared to sacrifice their life for him. Such people also finally cross the ocean of the birth-death cycles. Thus in this world of mortals there are many ways to experience the Supreme Soul. I shall present you with the cream of the philosophy of these methods. (13:1041-1050).
INTERACTION OF FIELD AND THE KNOWER
The entire world is created from the mutual interaction of the "Field" and the "Knower of the Field" both of which I explained to you. (13:1051-1052). All the movable and immovable things and the entity which we call "Jiva" or "life" is created out of the union of these two. Therefore materials or persons are not different from Purush. (13:1055-1056).
Even though cloth is not same as thread it is made of it. In the same way one should see by insight the sameness between Purush and the material world i.e. the Prakriti. You should experience the fact that all creatures are different forms of the same entity and they are basically the same. Their names are different, their behaviour also is different and they appear different outwardly but if by these considerations you sustain in your mind the idea that they are all different then you will not escape from this birth and death cycles in a million years. Individuals may have crooked shapes but the Soul is straight. Even though there are piles of lives the soul inside all of them is same. The physical appearance of individuals is illusive and destructible but the souls inside all of them is indestructible. Thus, he who understands that soul is not different from the individual but does not possess the attributes of the individual is the man of vision among all men of Knowledge and the most fortunate of men. (13:1057-1068).
MAN OF KNOWLEDGE IS LIBERATED WHILE IN BODY
This body made up of the five principles and full of wind, biles and phlegm is like a horrible bag full of the three attributes and the organs. It is plainly a scorpion with five sting-tails. It is burning in five types of fire and in this cage of the body that is the lion that is the individual is entrapped. Even though the body is like this the soul is indestructible. Arjuna, only a man of Knowledge does not harm himself even though he lives in the body and ultimately reaches the state of the Brahman. To attain that state, yogis by the power of their knowledge of yoga, cross millions of births and leave their body deciding that they will not be reborn. The Supreme Brahman which is beyond the name and form and is in the realm of vibrations (sound) is the final resting place of all destinations including that of liberation. He who does not permit ideas of differences between individuals due to their external differences in appearance experiences the bliss of the Brahman while he is still alive in his body. Just as same light emanates from different lamps the soul pervades everything right from the beginning. Arjuna, he who has this outlook of equality is not caught in the throes of birth-death cycles. He is very fortunate and I sing his praises often because he looks at everything with eyes of equality. (13:1069-1079).
And he fully knows that it is Prakriti which causes actions through mind, intellect, the five sense-organs and five organs of action. (13:1080). That Prakriti aided by the three attributes sets up different kinds of acts in the light of the Soul but the soul itself remains steady and unaffected by it. He who has decided that this is so has realised the Soul. (13:1082-1083).
Even otherwise Arjuna, he who sees unity in the diverse shapes of living beings, consider him as having attained Brahman. (13:1084). When one is certain in his mind that all creatures are created from the same Soul, then it can be said that he has found the boat that is the wealth of the Brahman (for crossing the ocean of birth and death cycles). Everywhere he casts his eyes he sees all is full of Brahman. He attains endless bliss. Thus you should completely know by experience the arrangement of Prakriti and Purush. The benefit you have gained is similar to an opportunity to gargle with nectar. (13:1087-1090). Now I am going to tell you one or two more profound ideas. (13:1092)
SOUL LIVES IN BODY AS A PROJECTION
What is known by the name Supreme Soul, even though it exists in the body, always remains in its pure state. (13:1094). Actually it is not correct to say that Soul resides in the body. The soul is said to be in the body in the same way as when one looks at one's face in the mirror and say it is his face. It is totally meaningless to say that soul is related to the body. (13:1096- 1098). Body is strung in the thread of the five principles and it rotates in the wheel of birth and death. This body is like a ball of butter inserted in the mouth of the fire that is Time. It vanishes in the short span of time that a fly takes to flutter its wings. If he falls in fire it turns to ashes and if it falls prey to a dog then it turns to fecal matter. If it escapes these two then a bunch of worms is created in it. Thus the body comes to a disgusting end. Though the body reaches this fate the soul is eternal, self-illuminating, self-sufficient and beginningless. (13:1103-1107).
Because it is without attributes it is neither without phases nor can it be said that it has phases. It is neither active nor without action, neither fat nor thin, neither visible nor invisible, neither bright nor dull neither less nor much. Because it is a void it is neither full nor empty. It is in no way without company nor it has company. It is neither shapeless nor does it have shape. Since it has the form of self it has neither bliss nor sorrow. It is neither one nor many. It is neither free nor bound. It is without characteristics it is neither this much nor that much, neither ready-made nor prepared, neither able to speak nor dumb. It is not born along with the creation of the universe and does not get destroyed when it gets destroyed. It is the place of dissolution of being and not being. It is dimensionless therefore it cannot be measured or described. It neither grows nor diminishes, fades or gets exhausted. Such is the nature of the Soul. It is unbroken therefore it neither takes the form of the body nor rejects it but remains as it was. Just as days and nights occur in the sky so are bodies acquired and given up by this soul. Therefore he does not do anything in the body nor cause it to be done nor does it get involved in any of the affairs of the body. But nothing happens to its nature. Not only that, even though it is in the body it is unattached to it. Though Soul is in all bodies it does not get stained by its characteristics. I am telling you again and again to take into consideration the characteristics of the Soul that the Knower of the Field is different from the Field. (13:1108-1119, 1121-1122).
A magnet by its proximity moves iron but iron is not the same as magnet. The same principle is applicable to the Soul and the body. There is fire hidden inside wood but wood is not fire, and Soul has to be viewed in the same way. Just as the sun is alone in the sky but illuminates the whole world in the same way the Soul illuminates all the living bodies. (13:1123-1128)
The intellect which understands the difference between the Field and the Knower of the Field is the intellect with real sight. It alone can assimilate the essence of the meaning of the words. It is for understanding the difference between the Field and the Knower of the field that the wise persons frequent the abodes of sages. It is for that alone that the intellectuals acquire the valuable peace and study Shastras. It is for that knowledge that men practice yoga with high aspiration. And some people by taking the body and other worldly matters insignificant respectfully serve the saints. Thus they shed their worries by following different paths of knowledge. I surrender my knowledge to the knowledge of those who understand the difference between the Field and Knower of the Field. (13:1129-1135)
And they know the real nature of this Prakriti or Maya which is spread everywhere in different forms and manifestations like the five principles. (13:1136). Those who are convinced in their heart that Prakriti is different from the Purush have attained Brahman. (13:1140). The Brahman is more extensive than sky, it is the outer border of Prakriti and after attaining it the feelings of similarity or dissimilarity vanish. Shape, feeling of being alive and duality vanish in It and it remains as one and only one Supreme Principle. This Supreme Principle is attained by those who understand that the Purush and Prakriti are different. (13:1140-1143).
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